- Karl Marx, Letter to Jenny von Westphalen Marx (June 1856)
Lebanese communist intellectual and theoretician Hassan Hamdan, better known as Mahdi Amel. He is often referred to as the “Arab Gramsci”.
A few resources on Mahdi Amel:
Disclaimer on the following two articles: I have many, many reservations on Vijay Prashad, but I am sharing his article and the one after (in which he is heavily quoted) here for lack of a better option as writing on Mahdi Amel is scarce.
The Arab Gramsci (Prashad did not coin the phrase “the Arab Gramsci”, as he would like you to believe)